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Wednesday, April 11, 2012

Oral solid Dosage forms

Dosage forms:

It is a transformation of a pure chemical compound in to a predetermined form by admixing drug component with different kinds of non-drug component knows as additives.


Tablets are the most extensively used solid dosage form. They are prepared by molding or usually compression.

Advantages of Tablets:

1.    They are a unit form and they offer the greatest capabilities of all oral dosage forms for the greatest dose precision and the least content variability.
2.    Their cost is lowest of all oral dosage forms.
3.    They are the lightest and most compact of all oral dosage forms.
4.    They are in general the easiest and the cheapest to package and ship of all oral dosage forms.
5.    Product identification is potentially the simplest and cheapest, requiring no additional processing steps when employing and embossed or monogrammed punch face.
6.    They may provide the greatest ease of swallowing with the least tendency for “hung-up” above the stomach, especially when coated, provider that tablet disintegration is not excessively rapid.
7.    They lend themselves to certain special release profile product such as enteric or delayed –release products.
8.    They are better suited to large-scale production then other unit oral forms.
9.    They have the best –combined properties of chemical, mechanical and microbiologic stability of all the oral forms.

Disadvantages of Tablets:

1.    Some drugs resist compression in to dense compacts, owing to their amorphous nature or flocculent, low density character.
2.    Drugs with poor wetting, slow dissolution properties, intermediate to large dosage. Optimum absorption high in gastrointestinal tract or any combination of these features may be difficult or impossible to formulate and manufacture as a tablet that will still provide adequate or full drugs bioavailability.
3.    Bitter-testing drugs, drugs with an objective odor, or drugs that are sensitive to oxygen or atmospheric moisture may require encapsulation or entrapment prior to compression, or the tablet may require coating .In such cases, the capsules may offer the best and lowest cost approach.


There are two main types of capsules and both are available in a variety of sizes. Like cachets they are useful for unpleasant medicaments.
1.    Hard capsules are for solid medicaments. They consist of a cylindrical body and cap. Both with hemispherical end, and are usually made from gelatin and water with added preservative. Although quite hard, they soften readily and dissolve after swallowing with water.
2.    Soft capsules are for solids liquids and semi-solids. They may be spherical, ovoid or cylindrical with hemispherical ends. In addition to the ingredients of hard capsules, they contain glycerol, which provides the flexibility.

Advantages of Capsules:

1.    They obscure the taste and odor of unpleasant drugs.
2.    They are attractive in appearance.
3.    They are slippery when moist, and hence easy to swallow with a draught of water.
4.    If properly stored the shells contain 12-15 percent of moisture which gives flexibility and, consequently, very considerable resistance to mechanical stresses.
5.    Less adjuncts are necessary than for tablets.
6.    The contents are usually in fine powder, which combined with freedom or near freedom from adjuncts, provides rapid and uniform release of medicaments in the gastro-intestinal tract.
7.    The shells can be pacified or colored, to gibe protection from light.
8.    The shells are made to very fine limits; hence the cap and base fit well and give substantial protection against air moisture.
9.    The shells are physiologically inert and easily and quickly digested in the gastrointestinal tract.
10.    Presentation of a drug in capsules, rather then in tablets, allows quicker submission of a new drug for clinical trials, because fewer development problems are involved .also it is easier to vary the dose.
11.    Complicated machinery is unnecessary for the extemporaneous dispensing of a few capsules.

1)  As such

(A) Oral

(i.)    Divided powder
       Simple powder
       Compound powder

(ii.)    Bulk powder
      Effervescent powder
(B) External

    Dusting powder

(C ) Parenterals

2)  Compressed

3)  Moulded
    Tablet triturates


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